LHC Tunnel

LHC Tunnel

Saturday, 30 April 2016

Resource management at CERN

As part of the recent OpenStack summit in Austin, the Scientific Working group was established looking into how scientific organisations can best make use of OpenStack clouds.

During our discussions with more than 70 people (etherpad), we concluded on 4 top areas to look at and started to analyse the approaches and common needs. The areas were
  1. Parallel file system support in Manila. There are a number of file systems supported by Manila but many High Performance Computing sites (HPC) use Lustre which is focussed on the needs of the HPC user community.
  2. Bare metal management looking at how to deploy bare metal for the maximum performance within the OpenStack frameworks for identity, quota and networking. This team will work on understanding additional needs with the OpenStack Ironic project.
  3. Accounting covering the wide range of needs to track usage of resources and showback/chargeback to the appropriate user communities.
  4. Stories is addressing how we collect requirements from the scientific use cases and work with the OpenStack community teams, such as the Product working group, to include these into the development roadmaps along with defining reference architectures on how to cover common use cases such as high performance or high throughput computing clouds in the scientific domain.
Most of the applications run at CERN are high throughput, embarrassingly parallel applications. Simulation and analysis of the collisions such as in the LHC can be farmed to different compute resources with each event being handled independently and no need for fast interconnects. While the working group will cover all the areas (and some outside this list), our focus is on accounting (3).

Given limited time available, it was not possible for each of the interested members of the accounting team to explain their environment. This blog is intended to provide the details of the CERN cloud usage, the approach to resource management and some areas where OpenStack could provide additional function to improve the way we manage the accounting process. Within the Scientific Working group, these stories will be refined and reviewed to produce specifications and identify the potential communities who could start on the development.

CERN Pledges

The CERN cloud provides computing resources for the Large Hadron Collider and other experiments. The cloud is currently around 160,000 cores in total spread across two data centres in Geneva and Budapest. Resources are managed world wide with the World Wide Computing LHC Grid which executes over 2 million jobs per day. Compute resources in the WLCG are allocated via a pledge model. Rather than direct funding from the experiments or WLCG, the sites, supported by their government agencies, commit to provide compute capacity and storage for a period of time as a pledge and these are recorded in the REBUS system. These are then made available using a variety of middleware technologies.

Given the allocation of resources across 100s of sites, the experiments then select the appropriate models to place their workloads at each site according to compute/storage/networking capabilities. Some sites will be suitable for simulation of collisions (high CPU, low storage and network). Others would provide archival storage and significant storage IOPS for more data intensive applications. For storage, the pledges are made in capacity on disk and tape. The compute resource capacity is pledges in Kilo-HepSpec06 units, abbreviated to kHS06 (based on a subset of the Spec 2006 benchmark) that allows faster processors to be given a higher weight in the pledge compared to slower ones (as High Energy Physics computing is an embarrassingly parallel high throughput computing problem).

The pledges are reviewed on a regular basis to check the requests are consistent with the experiments’ computing models, the allocated resources are being used efficiently and the pledges are compatible with the requests.

Within the WLCG, CERN provides the Tier-0 resources for the safe keeping of the raw data and performs the first pass at reconstructing the raw data into meaningful information. The Tier-0 distributes the raw data and the reconstructed output to Tier 1s, and reprocesses data when the LHC is not running.

Procurement Process

The purchases for the Tier-0 pledge for compute is translated into a formal procurement process. Given the annual orders exceed 750 KCHF, the process requires a formal procedure:
  • A market survey to determine which companies in the CERN member states could reply to requests in general areas such as compute servers or disk storage. Typical criteria would be the size of the company, the level of certification with component vendors and offering products in the relevant area (such as industry standard servers) 
  • A tender which specifies the technical specifications and quantity for which an offer is required. These are adjudicated on the lowest cost compliant with specifications criteria. Cost in this case is defined as the cost of the material over 3 years including warranty, power, rack and network infrastructure needed. The quantity is specified in terms of kHS06 with 2GB/core and 20GB storage/core which means that the suppliers are free to try different combinations of top bin processors which may be a little more expensive or lower performing ones which would then require more total memory and storage. Equally, the choice of motherboard components has significant flexibility within the required features such as 19” rack compatible and enterprise quality drives. The typical winning configurations recently have been white box manufacturers.
  • Following testing of the proposed systems to ensure compliance, an order is placed with several suppliers, the machines manufactured, delivered, racked-up and burnt it using a set of high load stress tests to identify issues such as cooling or firmware problems.
Typical volumes are around 2,000 servers a year in one or two rounds of procurement. The process from start to delivered capacity takes around 280 days so bulk purchases are needed followed by allocation to users rather than ordering on request. If there are issues found, this process can take significantly longer.

Time (Days)
Elapsed (Days)
User expresses requirement
Market Survey prepared
Market Survey for possible vendors
Specifications prepared
Vendor responses
Test systems evaluated
Offers adjudicated
Finance committee
Hardware delivered
Burn in and acceptance
30 days typical with 380 worst case
280+ Days

Given the time the process takes, there are only one to two procurement processes run per year. This means that a continuous delivery model cannot be used and therefore there is a need for capacity planning on an annual basis and to find approaches to use the resources before they are allocated out to their final purpose.

Physical Infrastructure

CERN manages two data centres in Meyrin, Geneva and Wigner, Budapest. The full data is available at the CERN data centre overview page. When hardware is procured, the final destination is defined as part of the order according to rack space, cooling and electrical availability. 

While the installations in Budapest are new installations, some of the Geneva installations involve replacing old hardware. We typically retire hardware between 4 and 5 years old when the CPU power/watt is significantly better with new purchases and the hardware repair costs for new equipment are more predictable and sustainable.

Within the Geneva centre, there are two significant areas, physics and redundant power. Physics power has a single power source which is expected to fail in the event of an electricity cut lasting beyond the few minutes supported by the battery units. The redundant power area is backed by diesels. The Wigner centre is entirely redundant.


With an annual procurement cycle with 2-3 vendors per cycle, each one with their own optimisations to arrive at the lowest cost for the specifications, the hardware is highly heterogeneous. This has a significant benefit when there are issues, such as disk firmware or BMC controllers, that lead to delays in one of the deliveries being accepted, so the remaining hardware can be made available to experiments.

However, we run the machines for the 3 year warranty and then some additional years on minimal repairs (i.e. simple parts are replaced with components from servers of the same series), we have around 15-20 different hardware configurations for compute servers active in the centre at any time. There are variations in the specifications (as technologies such as SSDs and 10Gb Ethernet became commodity, the new tenders needed these) and those between vendor responses for the same specifications (e.g. slower memory or different processor models).

These combinations do mean that offering standard flavors for each hardware complication would be very confusing for the users, given that there is no easy way for a user to know if resources are available in a particular flavor except to try to create a VM with that flavor.

Given new hardware deliveries and limited space, there are equivalent retirement campaigns. The aim is to replace the older hardware by more efficient newer boxes that can deliver more HS06 within the same power/cooling envelope. The process to empty machines depends on the workloads running on the servers. Batch workloads generally finish within a couple of weeks so setting the servers to no longer accept new work just before the retirements is sufficient. For servers and personal build/test machines, we aim to migrate the workloads to capacity on new servers. This operation is increasingly being performed using live migration and MPLS to extend the broadcast domains for networks to the new capacity.

Projects and Quota

All new users are allocated a project, “Personal XXXX” where XXXX is their CERN account when they subscribe to the CERN cloud service through the CERN resource portal. The CERN resource portal is the entry point to subscribe to the many services available from the central IT department and for users to list their currently active subscriptions and allocations. The personal projects have a minimal quota for a few cores and GBs of block storage so that users can easily follow the tutorial steps on using the cloud and create simple VMs for their own needs. The default image set is available on personal projects along with the standard ‘m’ flavors which are similar to the ones on AWS.

Shared projects can also be requested for activities which are related to an experiment or department. For these resources, a list of people can be defined as administrators (through CERN’s group management system e-groups) and a quota for cores, memory and disk space requested. Additional flavors can also be asked for according to particular needs such as the CERNVM flavors with a small system disk and a large ephemeral one.

The project requests go through a manual approval process, being reviewed by the IT resource management to check the request against the pledge and the available resources. An adjustment of the share of the central batch farm is also made so that the sum of resources for an experiment continues to be within the pledge.

Once the resource request has been manually approved, the ticket is then passed to the cloud team for execution. Rundeck provides us with a simple tool for performing high privilege operations with good logging and recovery. This is used in many of our workflows such as hardware repair. The Rundeck procedure reads the quota settings from the ticket and executes the appropriate project creation and role allocation requests to Keystone, Nova and Cinder.

Need #1 : CPU performance based allocation and scheduling

As with all requests, there is a mixture of requirements and implementation. The needs are stated according to our current understanding. There may be alternative approaches or compromises which would address these needs in common with other user requirements. One of the aims of the Scientific Working group is to expose these ideas to other similar users, adapt them to meet the general community and work with the product working group, user committee and developers on an approach. Thus, the subsequent areas where CERN would be interested in improvements in the underlying software techologies.

The resource manager for the cloud in a high throughput/performance computing environment allocates resources based on performance rather than pure core count.

A user wants to request a processor of a particular minimum performance and is willing to have a larger reduction in his remaining quota.

A user wants to make a request for resources and then iterate according to how much performance related quota they have left to fill the available quota, e.g. give me a VM with less than a certain performance rating.

A resource manager would like to encourage the use of older resources which are often idle.

A quotas for slower and faster cores is currently the same (thus users create a VM, delete it if it is one of the slower type) so there is no incentive to use the slower cores.

As a resource manager preparing an accounting report, the faster cores should have a higher weight against the pledge to ensure continued treatment of slower cores.

The proposal is therefore to have an additional, optional quota on CPU units so that resource managers can allocate out total throughput rather than per core capacities.

The alternative approach of defining a number of flavors for each of the hardware types and quota. However, there are a number of drawbacks with this approach:
  • The number of flavors to define would be significant (in CERN’s case, around 15-20 different hardware configurations multiplied by 4-5 sizes for small, medium, large, xlarge, ...)
  • The user experience impact would be significant as the user would have to iterate over the available flavors to find free capacity. For example, trying out m4.large first and finding the capacity was all used, then trying m3.large etc.
There is, as far as I know, no per-flavor quota. The specs have been discussed in some operator feedback sessions but the specification did not reach consensus.

Extendible resource tracking seems to be approaching the direction with ‘compute units’ (such as here) as defined in the specification. Many parts of this are not yet implemented so it is not easy to see if it addresses the requirements.

Need #2 : Nested Quotas

As an experiment resource co-ordinator, it should be possible to re-allocate resources according to the priorities of the experiment without needing action by the administrators. Thus, moving quotas between projects which are managed by the experiment resource co-ordinators within the pledge allocated by the WLCG.

Nested keystone projects have been in the production release since Kilo. This gives the possibility for role definitions within the nested project structure.

The implementation of the nested quota function has been discussed within various summits for the past 3 years. The first implementation proposal, Boson, was for a dedicated service for quota management. However, there were concerns raised by the PTLs on the impacts for performance and maintainability of this approach. The alternative of enhancing the quotas in each of the projects has been followed (such as Nova). These implementations though have not advanced due to other concerns with quota management which are leading towards a common library, delimiter, which is being discussed for Newton.

Need #3 : Spot Market

As a cloud provider, uncommitted resources should be made available at a lower cost but at a lower service level, such as pre-emption and termination at short notice. This mirrors the AWS spot market or the Google Pre-emptible instances. The benefits would be higher utilization of the resources and ability to provide elastic capacity for reserved instances by reducing the spot resources.

A draft specification for this functionality has been submitted along with the proposal which is currently being reviewed. An initial implementation of this functionality (called OpenStack Preemptible Instances Extension, or opie) will be made available soon on github following the work on Indigo Datacloud by IFCA. A demo video is available on YouTube.

Need #4 : Reducing quota below utilization

As an experiment resource co-ordinator, quotas are under regular adjustment to meet the chosen priorities. Where a project has a lower priority but high current utilization, further resource usage should be blocked but existing resources not deleted since the user may still need to complete the processing on those VMs. The resource co-ordinator can then contact the user to encourage the appropriate resources to be deleted.

To achieve this function, one approach would be to allow the quota to be set below the current utilization in order to give the project administrator the time to identify the resources which would be best to be deleted in view of the reduced capacity.

Need #5 : Components without quota

As a cloud provider, some inventive users are storing significant quantities of data in the Glance image service. There is only a maximum size limit with no accumulated capacity leaves this service open to non-planned storage.

It is proposed to add quota functionality inside Glance for
  • The total capacity of images stored in Glance
  • The total capacity of snapshots stored in Glance
The number of images and snapshots would be an lower priority enhancement request since the service risk comes from the total capacity although the numbers could potentially also be abused.

Given that this is new functionality, it could also be a candidate for the first usage of the new delimiter library.

Need #6 : VM Expiration

As a private cloud provider, some VMs should be time limited to ensure that they are still required by their end users and automatically expire if there is no confirmation. Personal projects are often in this category as users will launch test instances but fail to delete them on completion of the test. These cases the users should be required to confirm that they will need the resources and that these are within their current allocated quota (Need #4).


There are too many people who have been involved in the resource management activities to list here. The teams contributing to the description above are:
  • CERN IT teams supporting cloud, batch, accounting and quota
  • BARC, Mumbai for collaborating around the implementation of nested quota
  • Indigo Datacloud team for work on the spot market in OpenStack
  • Other labs in the WLCG and the Scientific Working Group


  1. Very nice blog, Thanks for sharing grate article.
    You are providing wonderful information, it is very useful to us.
    Keep posting like this informative articles.
    Thank you.

    From: Field Engineer
    Network Field Technician Jobs

  2. Technology Write For Us (Guest Posts) – Here in WebUpdatesDaily we are providing the opportunity to post your Technology, Business and many more other category blogs.

    gadgets write for us

  3. I regularly wouldn't be so connected by any articles relating to this subject, however yours caught my eye. It resembled an extraordinary sweet shouting out to me to eat it. This is acceptable substance.

    SEO services in kolkata
    Best SEO services in kolkata
    SEO company in kolkata
    Best SEO company in kolkata
    Top SEO company in kolkata
    Top SEO services in kolkata
    SEO services in India
    SEO copmany in India

  4. The IDM can be obtain by Internet Download Manager Site and also you can get the Internet Download Manager (IDM) application form web site the most of the sites also offer to download the application but without license you can download and install for 15 Days Trial version can be download from any site. The IDM Crack will be download from the here using torrent link the torrent will be helpful if it is using on the base of VPN services . IDM serial key
    IDM license code
    IDM Patch
    idm crack key
    idm crack for pc
    IDM crack download
    idm latest version

  5. Tech Today Info has been sharing the best research information available in the area
    of technology. We feature Tech Trends, Tips of Technology, and explore to tech
    innovative products. Keep up to date on the latest developments in the tech
    Write For Us Tech
    Write For Us Technology
    Write For Us Gadgets
    Technology Write For Us
    Tech Write For Us
    Gadgets Write For Us

  6. Thanks for another wonderful post. Where else could anybody get that type of info in such an ideal way of writing? Applicant tracking system

  7. borderlands 3 crack virus another review of the well known Borderlands arrangement. Generation is a first-individual shooter whose move makes put in an open world, and the entire is supplemented by components taken from the RPG type. The title was made by Gearbox Software studio, in charge of the initial two perspectives and the Brothers in Arms arrangement. Borderlands 3 features bazillions of guns, courtesy of the same reputable manufacturers that Vault Hunters like you have been trusting to tool them up since forever. Guns that grow legs and chase down enemies while hurling verbal insults? Yeah, got that too. At the hard edge of the galaxy lies a group of planets ruthlessly exploited by militarized corporations. Brimming with loot and violence, this is your home the Borderlands. Now, a crazed cult known as The Children of the Vault has emerged and is spreading like an interstellar plague.


  8. Tire market: Tire specialty store
    Sale of new 中古タイヤ, purchase of aluminum wheels
    Cheap Tires & Wheels --TIRENAVI.JP | Tire Navi
    Because what we do is for you to save money

  9. Thank you for a great way to get traffic and links. I've hear good things about your from Richard Legg. Your list is excellent! I have an https://www.hightime420.shop/

    and I can clear blockages to a person success. Sounds strange? Check it out! Am sure you will like it.

  10. Kalian bingung bagaimana cara bermain Roulette dan apa saja tata cara, hadiah dan hal yang harus diperhatikan sebelum bermain LIVE GAME IDN 3D SHIO, ROULETTE. SICBO, BACCARAT , kalian tidak perlu panik karna kalian bisa memainkan Game Roulette IDN dengan benar ketika kalian mengunjungi situs Cara Bermain Live Game IDN LIVE

  11. investigación Infidelidades is a very serious matter and should be done by professionals. In a delicate moment it is very easy to fall into the commission of crimes against privacy yourself or to hire a "pirate" who commits crimes with you without having the least idea of ​​the limits of the current legislation. Only a professional private detective knows what and how to investigate to achieve results without breaking any law.

  12. We support our clients on the management of pitches, RFP and vendor selection management, Production Design, Advertising and Marketing Production terminology.

  13. Thanks for sharing this great article. Hi, I am John Smith, I am working as a technical manager at the email support. Are you seeking the perfect way for AOL email settings to access your AOL Mail? Well, we are a team of experts and professionals who can help you access your email quickly. But why email settings are required? Whenever your email client, such as AOL, sends an email to the server or receives an email from the email servers, it requires SMTP and IMAP or POP respectively. To proceed with AOL email settings, you will need to fill the SMTP and IMAP/POP3 server address, username, password, SMTP & IMAP port number, and SSL or TLS authentication. However, novice users could find these settings a bit difficult for the first time, but anybody can learn it after taking the expert’s help. If you also want to execute the AOL IMAP settings, then you can reach out to us through call or email.

  14. Razer Surround Pro Key Complete Crack + Patch Free of charge Download

    Razer Surround Pro Key could be the capable virtual encompass sound motors which intrigue you under into the amusement. It presents you gamer the most effective virtual 7.1 channel encompass sound contact with any stereo earphones. You could potentially see the sweet good encounter gaming that will fall you on your amusements within a by means of existing day way. It will be pleasing with any earphones, headset, and headphones. One can go towards changing into history with an remarkable recognition of other’s anticipations inside of your titles by means of our irregular point out sound

  15. Wonderful! I really like it. Thanks for sharing this. mobile app development atlanta. Atlanta App Developers. Really Nice.

  16. Watch the latest Indian series, dubbed and subtitled, full HD series, online. Watch directly YouTube full episodes مسلسلات هندية

  17. Watch the latest Turkish series, dubbed and subtitled online, full episodes in high quality YouTube Download the latest and newest exclusive Turkish series with a direct link مسلسلات تركية

  18. watching porn porn videos collection. HD quality watching porn xxx movies for free of charge . Fresh videos a day سوكس بنات نيك

  19. Whether you're new to angling or you're experienced, at Total Fishing Tackle you may discover all of the accessories, clothing and equipment you need, today Ivan Susanin

  20. Watch right here your Favourite Pinoy Tambayan Channel Replay television shows Online. All The Filipino Replays and Pinoy Lambingan shows Available for You.

  21. This excellent website truly has all of the info I wanted concerning this subject and didn’t know who to ask. 베토리카지노

  22. A comfortable stay holiday is one among the foremost important things, to spend a gorgeous and relaxed time. cost of living in Ghana

  23. Find and share regular cooking idea on Allrecipes. Discover recipes, cooks, videos, and how-tos based at the food you love and the friends you follow. lovely recipes

  24. I have read your blog and its really interesting.

    My Blog: Printer Installation Error 0x000003eb appears mainly when trying to perform a usual and familiar connection or installation of a printer in the system. check blog for simple & easy Solution.

  25. This is my first visit to this territory. I find some really spellbinding things about this discussion in your blog. Remain mindful of the incredible work. Website: HP Error Code B0605

  26. UK 49s Ltd. organizes this lotto, and the occasion attracts instances a day. So it’s a double chance for lunchtime gamers who desires to double the win! The below schedule is about timing suitable for playing. UK lunchtime results


  27. I am really impressed with the information you provide in your post. Looking forward to visiting more.
    Epson printer error code 031008

  28. Watch the latest Indian series, dubbed and subtitled, complete series in high quality online. Watch directly YouTube full episodes مسلسلات هندية

  29. Very happy with this purchase! It's smooth and fits very comfortably. I love the way it looks both in the light and shade! Very unique look. custom jewelry

  30. Resources like the one you mentioned here will be very useful to me! Thanks for sharing this useful information with us...Check out the way to fix Dell Error Code 2000 0122. Lean how you can fix it at your own or feel free to call our experts on our toll-free numbers or visit our website to know more!

  31. Nice
    Technewsinfo gives you a voice through which you can reach a global audience, and our strong positioning in Search Engine makes the readers find your articles first.
    Technology write for us

  32. This article was really good. Thanks for sharing this one. I'll surely be visiting this site again. Check out the way to fix Dell Error Code 0141. Lean how you can fix it at your own or feel free to call our experts on our toll-free numbers or visit our website to know more!

  33. Techaddanews gives you a voice through which you can reach a global audience, and our strong positioning in Search Engine makes the readers find your articles first.

    Visit https://techaddanews.com/!

  34. Nice
    Technewsinfo gives you a voice through which you can reach a global audience, and our strong positioning in Search Engine makes the readers find your articles first.
    Technology write for us

  35. Honey Web Solutions was founded in the year 2012, which specializes in web development, website design, eCommerce development, Web Application, Custom Development, flash,Digital Marketing and SEO. visit:Digital Marketing Company in Tirupati

  36. Honey Web Solutions was founded in the year 2012, which specializes in web development, website design, eCommerce development, Web Application, Custom Development, flash,Digital Marketing and SEO.visit:Digital Marketing Company in Tirupati

  37. Thank you very much for this nice and informative post.To be honest I was planning to write about this topic and I intend to post a link to this wonderful article once I have it done.I learned myself few other things I never thought about. mebel jepara

  38. Dr. Ram Manohar Lohiya Avadh University Bachelor of Commerce Semester wise Exam Result 2020 now available online. Students Can Check 1st 2nd 3rd Year BCom Result 2020-2021.
    Dr. Ram Manohar Lohiya Avadh University Exam Result
    RMLAU Bcom Exam Result 2020
    RMLAU Bcom 3rd Year Result 2019-20

  39. Start Menu: Start Menu in Windows 7 is completely different from its previous version i.e. windows vista.Windows 7 Activator

  40. Sportnewsinfo.com is your one stop guide to all the sports news, reviews and opinions from India and around the world, plus fixtures, live scores and much more.

    Visit https://sportnewsinfo.com//!

  41. This comment has been removed by the author.

  42. After the bygone era, playing a lottery game is now an easy way to earn money in an exciting way.The lottery sambad Morning West Bengal State Lottery lottery sambad Nagaland state Lottery published three times a day, is a very quality lottery and Satta king results.

  43. I feel like I need to re-read this article because I just really want to say thank you.

    Miracle VIVO Tool Crack

    RC-20 Retro Color Crack

    Gihosoft TubeGet Crack

    ShareMouse Crack

    WhatsApp for Windows Crack

  44. Good news My heart's desire came to your website suddenly.
    Mark it for the moment!

    freemake video downloader crack


  45. After studying many pages on your site, I love your blog.
    I have added it as a book to my catalog and will see it longer.
    Please check out my website and let me know what you think.
    bandicut crack
    foxit reader crack
    transmac crack
    mirillis action crack

  46. I’m very pleased to find this page.

  47. I really love your blog.. Great colors & theme.
    Did you develop this website yourself? Please reply
    back as I’m hoping to create my own site and would love to know
    where you got this from or just what the theme is named.
    Thank you!
    sylenth crack
    avg driver updater crack
    unipdf full crack
    kontakt crack
    iris pro crack
    avg secure search crack

  48. This is very attention-grabbing, You’re an overly skilled blogger.
    I’ve joined your feed and look ahead to seeking more of your great post.
    Additionally, I have shared your site in my social networks

    hard disk sentinel crack
    freemake video downloader
    k7 antivirus premium
    any video downloader pro crack
    rocket cleaner apk

  49. This is very attention-grabbing, You’re an overly skilled blogger.
    I’ve joined your feed and look ahead to seeking more of your great post.
    Additionally, I have shared your site in my social networks

    xilisoft iphone magic platinum crack
    asmw pc optimizer pro
    truecaller premium apk

  50. Hello, This is a very interesting blog. this content is written very well This is an amazing post, keep blogging.
    thanks for sharing. Anyways I am here now and could just like to say thank for a tremendous post and a all round entertaining website.

    apple gift card balance check

    apple gift card check balance

  51. Extraordinary site you have here.. It's elusive quality composing like yours nowadays. I sincerely acknowledge people like you!

    onevanilla gift card,
    onevanilla check balance,

  52. I am here now and could just like to say thank for a tremendous post and a all round entertaining website. Extraordinary site you have here.. It’s best quality composing like yours nowadays. I sincerely acknowledge people like you!

    Social Media Marketing Company,

    Social Media Marketing Packages,

  53. Nice post, I really enjoyed reading this article, it explains everything in a simple way. I will be reviewing this blog for such important information and will continue to search for it.
    movavi video editor
    typing master pro crack
    driver easy crack
    windows activator crack

  54. I really like what you all put up. you have completed honestly appropriate work. thank you for the information you provide, it helped me plot Matlab R2020 Crack & License Key pubg license key crack.

  55. Your source for fun, free mobile and PC download games. Thousands of free ... Download or play free online! ... Here is the Exact Arcade Version of Dig Dug!
    nfs hot pursuit remastered torrent

  56. jrnrvu B.com Time Table
    I am really impressed with the information.I look forward to more comprehensive and insightful posts like this in the future. Thanks for your post. keep it up!

  57. It is my first visit to your blog, and I am very impressed with the articles that you serve. Give adequate knowledge for me. Thank you for sharing useful material.
    uniraj bsc time table 2021
    davv bsc time table 2021

  58. Your source for fun, free mobile and PC download games. Thousands of free ... Download or play free online! ... Here is the Exact Arcade Version of Dig Dug!
    fall guys free download pc highly compressed

  59. Thanks for sharing such great information. bsc 3rd year time table Hope we will get regular updates from your side.

  60. Thanks for giving me grateful information (Rajasthan police constable result) . I think this is very important to me. Your post is quite different. That's why I regularly visit your site.

  61. Thanks for sharing this post. Hi, Myself coren fozz. We are working dedicatedly as an independent and reliable third-party tech support provider, available round the clock to provide the best technical support services for brother printer users. If you are experiencing brother printer doesn't recognize ink cartridge error, our printer support professionals have the great technical skills and extensive experience for resolving this technical error within a few seconds.

  62. Order fresh flowers Online from best online florist in gurgaon. Send unique design flowers to gurgaon for all special occasions to your loved ones.

    send flowers to gurgaon

  63. Love Candy Jack strain. Use it to treat MS symptoms, and it works quickly and very well. Tastes wonderful

  64. https://www.zgamespc.com/videopad-video-editor-2021/
    VideoPad Video Editor Crack application makes realistic videos. On the other hand, the user is capable to edit the existing video. So, it provides the facility of many built-in functions that we can use in our creativity.

  65. https://07cracked.com/3dmark-crack-download/
    3DMark Crack is the best tool that use to check your machine and capable to edit the system and run the latest games. And it uses to take any type of advantage and make it go for the series of the visual appeal system.

  66. https://crackedhere.com/kutools-for-excel-torrent-crack/
    Kutools for Excel is the skillful software for the users to make easy to understand the confused works in excel within a few clicks. It increases and joins 200 plus latest operation for the users to simply deal with several tasks in Excel.

  67. https://techsoftkey.com/smart-game-booster-crack-2021/
    Smart Game Booster Crack is the game boosting software for windows and mac devices. In other words, this is best to get playing tools developed for the PC games and it will allow playing the games for a long time.

  68. https://chcracked.com/easeus-mobimover-crack-2021/
    EaseUS MobiMover Crack is a software shifting data from one device to another if you have data in one mobile. If you want to switch to mobile and want to collect the previous data from the previous mobile.

  69. Woah! I’m really enjoying the template/theme of this website.
    It’s simple, yet effective. A lot of times it’s very
    difficult to get that “perfect balance” between user friendliness and appearance.
    I must say that you’ve done a very good job with this.
    Also, the blog loads very quickly for me on Firefox.
    Exceptional Blog!
    iobit malware fighter crack
    guitar pro crack
    playon crack
    agisoft photoscan crack
    adobe photoshop cc crack
    adobe photoshop cc crack

  70. Applications for Windows, Mac, Linux and Smartphones, Games and Drivers

  71. Nicely written & done.
    I started writing in the last few days and realized that lot of
    writers simply rework old ideas but add very little of value.
    It’s fantastic to read an informative post of some genuine value to myself and your other followers.
    It is on the list of things I need to replicate as a new blogger.
    Reader engagement and content quality are king.
    Some terrific ideas; you’ve most certainly managed to get on my list of blogs to watch!
    Carry on the terrific work!
    Well done,
    melody sauce vst crack

  72. Students can enroll themselves into this free resource center and get advantages like free mocks and many more
    NEET previous year solved paper
    JEE previous year solved paper

  73. Nicely written & done.
    I started writing in the last few days and realized that lot of
    writers simply rework old ideas but add very little of value.
    It’s fantastic to read an informative post of some genuine value to myself and your other followers.
    It is on the list of things I need to replicate as a new blogger.
    Reader engagement and content quality are king.
    Some terrific ideas; you’ve most certainly managed to get on my list of blogs to watch!
    Carry on the terrific work!
    Well done,
    Thank you!
    no mans sky pc crack

  74. I'm writing on this topic these days, , but I have stopped writing because there is no reference material. Then I accidentally found your article. I can refer to a variety of materials, so I think the work I was preparing will work! Thank you for your efforts. 토토커뮤니티

  75. I am very impressed with your post because this post is very beneficial for me and provide a new knowledge to me
    All Software Free Download

  76. Great website! It looks extremely professional! Sustain the helpful job! Cubase Pro Pro Full Crack.

  77. It’s actually a cool and useful piece of info. I’m happy that you shared this useful info with us. Please stay us informed like this. Thank you for sharing Corel Aftershot Pro Crack + Serial Key Free Download.

  78. Exceptionally user pleasant website. Enormous info readily available on couple of clicks https://seeratpc.com/macrorit-partition-expert-crack/

  79. barrel sauna with wood stove

    WAJA sauna is specialist manufacturer of top quality sauna products. Products include sauna rooms, steam rooms, barrel saunas, wooden hot tubs, and all kinds of sauna accessories.

  80. Are you the one who studies this subject?? I have a headache with this subject.카지노사이트Looking at your writing was very helpful.

  81. Hello I am so delighted I located your blog about 안전놀이터, I really located you by mistake, while I was watching on google for something else, Anyways I am here now and could just like to say thank for a tremendous post and a all round entertaining website. Please do keep up the great work.This is a great post!I didn't overdo it because of the inflated content , and I feel that I tried to keep the reader from 토토사이트 feeling the burden with concise content.

  82. First of all, thank you for letting me see this information. I think this article can give me a lot of inspiration. I would appreciate 메이저토토사이트 if you could post more good contents in the future.Your article is great. I think it will be praised anywhere. I am a columnist and I am writing articles related to 메이저사이트. If you are interested in the column I wrote, I would appreciate it if you visit my site .

  83. thanks for shring this post its really amazing we offer best kashmir tour travel services
    budget Kashmir holiday
    Valley trip tour operator
    honeymoon packages for kashmir

  84. Thanks for other great articles, others might get it.
    What kind of knowledge is such an ideal form of writing? I am the owner
    I looking for so a presentation in a week.
    advanced systemcare pro serial key
    reimage pc repair crack
    adobe illustrator cc crack
    fl studio 20 7 crack
    easeus partition master crack

  85. I feel that is among the so much important information for me. And i am satisfied reading your article. However should statement on few common issues, The site style is great, the articles is in point of fact great : D. Excellent process, cheers.
    izotope insight crack
    zwcad crack
    netbalancer crack
    graphpad prism crack
    tenorshare icarefone crack
    tiny cam monitor pro apk full cracked
    mixpad crack
    agisoft photoscan pro crack
    autodesk autocad civil 3d crack

  86. nice work is done here. thanks a lot for sharing.

  87. If you have at any time believed about laying your own hardwood flooring all by yourself, that you must prevent to get a second. The problem is exactly what a hardwood floor nailer is. Allow us to speak about using a Flooring Nailer Reviews, once you become accustomed to it, it would make the job easy. This tool is built to sit on high of the tongue of the hardwood and drive the nails into it. It positions alone so you cannot come up with a blunder with it. This is certainly the sole tool in existence which is formed to nail hardwood flooring.
    The majority do not own a hardwood floor nailer, or have any notion what this tool is unless of course you may be inside of the construction firm. There are lots of regional merchants that you can discover these tools for hire. In the event you rent the nail gun, you may also need to have to hire the air compressor to run the nail gun. Rental is by the day or because of the week. You rent in accordance with the size of the job you have.


  88. Send plants to Delhi - Order Unique plants Online from best gift shop, Gifola. Send latest unique plants to Delhi for all special occasions to your loved ones. ✓Free Home Delivery ✓Same Day Gift Delivery

    Send plants to Delhi



    Website paling ternama dan paling terpercaya di Asia ^^
    Sistem pelayanan 24 Jam Non-Stop bersama dengan CS Berpengalaman respon tercepat :)
    Memiliki 10 Jenis game yang sangat digemari oleh seluruh peminat poker / domino

    - Adu Q
    - Bandar Q
    - Bandar Sakong
    - Bandar Poker a
    - Poker
    - Domino 99
    - Capsa Susun
    - BANDAR66
    - PERANG DADU (Games Terbaru)
    Permainan Judi online yang menggunakan uang asli dan mendapatkan uang asli ^^

    * Minimal Deposit : 20.000
    * Minimal Withdraw : 20.000
    * Deposit dan Withdraw 24 jam Non stop ( Kecuali Bank offline / gangguan )
    * Bonus REFFERAL 15 % Seumur hidup tanpa syarata
    * Bonus ROLLINGAN 0.3 % Dibagikan 5 hari 1 kali
    * Proses Deposit & Withdraw PALING CEPAT
    * Sistem keamanan Terbaru & Terjamin
    * Poker Online Terpercayaa
    * Live chat yang Responsive
    * Mensupport semua jenis bank lokal dan tersedia deposit via OVO dan PULSA TELKOMSEL

    Contact Us
    Website SahabatQQ
    WA 1 : +855889110527
    WA 2 : +855972076840
    Telegram 1 :+85515769793
    Telegram 2 : +855972076840
    Line : SahabatQQWin
    FACEBOOK : SahabatQQ Reborn
    Agen Domino99

  91. zgamespc
    Here You Can Download New Crack Software Download Full Free Of Cost.

  92. crackypro
    Here You Can Download New Crack Software Download Full Free Of Cost.

  93. crackitkey
    Here You Can Download New Crack Software Download Full Free Of Cost.

  94. Thank you for sharing such great information. can you help me in finding out more detail on 15 Best Google Chrome Security Extensions

  95. The Google Birthday Surprise Spinner, the greatest Doodle yet, has come around. comprising of a turning wheel that, when turned, takes you to one of the nineteen different games, was Google's method of celebrating its nineteenth birthday. These 19 different games are very different from each other but they are entertaining enough

  96. Android Apks - is a place where you can fiAndroid Apks - is a place where you can find paid best android apk apps games to download free full version for mobile, tablets.
    brosec chrome

  97. The Professional Edition of PaperScan Crack Scanner is the most comprehensive version that provides professional end users with all the necessary functions for efficient document (image and PDF) acquisition, processing and storage.
    PaperScan Pro Crack

  98. KeepVid Pro Torrent presents up an archive course of action if you wish to record video, also to start out this all it's good to do is struck the devoted document button that rests beside the paste Web address button. Other providers which includes YouTube, MyVideo, Vimeo, Dailymotion, and CBS been employed by accurately. There is some techniques chances are you'll use to download video clips from loading online sites, in case you are any person who downloads an entire lot of promotion on the Internet https://kingsoftz.com/keepvid-pro-crack-serial-key/

  99. I guess I am the only one who came here to share my very own experience. Guess what!? I am using my

    laptop for almost the past 2 years, but I had no idea of solving some basic issues. I do not know how

    to Download Cracked Application and install a crack pro software or any other basic crack version.

    I always rely on others to solve my basic issues. But thankfully, I recently visited a website named

    Download Full Crack Application! that has explained an easy way to

    install all all the crack software on windows and mac. So, if you

    are the same as me then must-visit place for you.


    360 Total Security Crack
    Final Cut Pro X Crack
    Nitro Pro Crack
    FileViewPro Crack

  100. Get help installing PC software on your computer, including installing software on Windows 10 devices, in this free lesson.
    clownfish voice changer full

  101. After looking through a few blog articles on your website,
    we sincerely appreciate the way you blogged.
    We've added it to our list of bookmarked web pages and will be checking back in the near
    future. Please also visit my website and tell us what you think.
    Avocode crack
    DriverMax Pro Crack
    Avast Premium Crack
    Ummy Video Downloader Crack
    KMSAuto Net Activator Crack

  102. I seriously love your website.. Excellent colors & theme.
    Did you create this amazing site yourself? Please reply back as I’m attempting to create my own site
    and want to know where you got this from or just what the theme is named.

  103. I want to start a blog to write about everything that happens at school and
    with friends…anonymously…any sugestions?.서양야동

  104. Thats the the main reason i am your daily visitor because I love the way you write. Thanks for sharing this with us.

  105. I enjoyed reading through your post, thanks for sharing.
    xiaomi redmi 9

  106. The product is painted with anti-scratch paint to help the cabinet stay beautiful for long-term use.
    ablenton live Crack
    acdsee pro Crack
    acronis backup Crack
    actual multiple monitors Crack

  107. This is one very interesting post. I like the way you write and I will bookmark your blog to my favorites.메이저놀이터

  108. Nice information, valuable and excellent design, as share good stuff with good ideas and concepts.먹튀검증커뮤니티

  109. What a post I've been looking for! I'm very happy to finally read this post. 토토사이트 Thank you very much. Can I refer to your post on my website? Your post touched me a lot and helped me a lot. If you have any questions, please visit my site and read what kind of posts I am posting. I am sure it will be interesting.

  110. I’ll bookmark your Vidyasiri Scholarship blog and take a look at again right here regularly.

    ccs university.ac.in exam date sheet

  111. You are very articulate and explain your ideas and opinions clearly leaving no room for miscommunication. Please Kindly check My web: Curso Profissionalizante Online de Cabeleireira

  112. As I am looking at your writing, 먹튀검증사이트 I regret being unable to do outdoor activities due to Corona 19, and I miss my old daily life. If you also miss the daily life of those days, would you please visit my site once? My site is a site where I post about photos and daily life when I was free.

  113. I have searched for hours on this topic and finally found your post. , I have read your post and I am very impressed. We prefer your opinion and will visit this site frequently to refer your opinion. When would you like to visit my site? ngobrol games

  114. I also believe A professional resource management tool can help you overcome the challenges of handling and allocating resources, helping you simplify and add efficiency to the process.

  115. Sankey diagram is a very useful visualization to show the flow of data. Can you shed light which tools are best and easy to use to draw Sankey Diagram.

  116. When I read an article on this topic, 먹튀검증커뮤니티 the first thought was profound and difficult, and I wondered if others could understand.. My site has a discussion board for articles and photos similar to this topic. Could you please visit me when you have time to discuss this topic?

  117. Nice Blog !
    Our team at QuickBooks Support Phone Number makes sure that we do everything possible to get your issues resolved in an unexpected moment of crisis.

  118. Thank you for any other informative blog. Where else may just I am getting that kind of information written in such a perfect method? I have a mission that I’m simply now working on, and I have been on the glance out for such info. 안전놀이터추천

  119. I've been searching for hours on this topic and finally found your post. , I have read your post and I am very impressed. We prefer your opinion and will visit this site frequently to refer to your opinion. When would you like to visit my site? 토토사이트

  120. Thanks for this post, I really found this very helpful. And blog about best time to post on cuber law is very useful. https://newcracksoft.com/wipersoft-crack/

  121. Natural Herbs Clinic recommends Herbal Product for Dry Skin to get rid of the problem naturally without any side effects. Herbal Remedy for Dry Skin is made with herbal elements and has outstanding results in the natural recovery of skin problems.

  122. Thanks for sharing such great information, I highly appreciate your hard-working skills which are quite beneficial for me. https://newcracksoft.com/aimersoft-video-converter-ultimate-crack/

  123. Really no matter if someone doesn't be aware of after that its up to other users that they will help, so here it takes place 토토사이트추천.

  124. My programmer is trying to convince me to move to .net from 토토사이트. I have always disliked the idea because of the expenses. But he's tryiong none the less.

  125. I love what you 메이저놀이터 tend to be up too. This kind of clever work and exposure! Keep up the excellent works guys I've incorporated you guys to our blogroll.

  126. Great post! I am actually getting ready to across this information, is very helpful my friend. Also great blog here with all of the valuable information you have. Keep up the good work you are doing here. 온라인포커

  127. found a web page with content that you might find interesting. If you're interested, please click the hyperlink..먹튀사이트

  128. Hello I am so delighted I located your blog, I really located you by mistake, while I was watching on google for something else, Anyways I am here now and could just like to say thank for a tremendous post and a all round entertaining website. Please do keep up the great work.
    Trucchi The Sims
    انترنت داونلود مانجر مع الكراك
    Kody Do The Sims
    Triche The Sims 4
    The Sims 4 Mod
    The Sims 4 Cheats


  129. Good day! Writing this article couldn't get any better!
    Reading this article reminds me of my wonderful roommate! He has already spoken about it.
    I am sending you this article, are you sure?
    You will read well Thanks for sharing!
    poweriso crack
    hotspot shield
    eset smart security premium crack
    iperius backup full crack

  130. Guess I will just bookmark this site The Design looks very good 토토커뮤니티

  131. Wow, great blog article 먹튀검증 We are linking to this great post on our website

  132. play a very 토토사이트검증 important role in staying in touch with clients, delegates, and fellow employees.

  133. written I'm glad that i found this if only for the fantasti c lucidity in your writing. I will instantly grab안전놀이터

  134. I have been looking for articles on these topics for a long time. Kèo bóng đá I don't know how grateful you are for posting on this topic. Thank you for the numerous articles on this site, I will subscribe to those links in my bookmarks and visit them often. Have a nice day.

  135. I'm so happy to see such a good article after a long time, so I'd appreciate it if you gave me more information.안전놀이터

  136. I basically need to disclose to you that I am new to weblog and unquestionably loved this blog website. Likely I'm going to bookmark your blog . You totally have magnificent stories. Cheers for imparting to us your 사설토토사이트

  137. What a nice comment!Nice to meet you. I live in a different country from you. Your writing will be of great help to me and to many other people living in our country. I was looking for a post like this, but I finally found 토토사이트.

  138. Good job. Its very excellent blog. I like it.This site have different software articles which appears to be a useful and valuable for you individual, proficient software installation. This is where you can get helps for any software installation, usage and cracked.

  139. Admiring the commitment you put into your website and in depth information you present.
    It’s awesome to come across a blog every once in a while that isn’t the same unwanted rehashed material.
    Fantastic read! I’ve bookmarked your site
    mnsoftware cracks

  140. Good article, but it would be better if in future you can share more about this subject. Keep posting.

    Feel free to surf to my page - 풀싸롱


  141. All Call Girls in Lahore getable here are very good-looking, cool, modish and forever stand by their statement of sincerity and loyalty.

  142. Once you have selected the most suitable and most excellent Call Girls in Karachi Services, you need not do anything by yourself. Just give them a call or visit their office.

  143. Individuals who are searching for sensual requirements in other parts of the globe look for consistent and legitimate Karachi Call Girls agencies in Karachi and further cities where they can discover a appropriate girlfriend.

  144. Your explanation is organized very easy to understand!!! I understood at once. Could you please post about 사설토토 ?? Please!!

  145. I'm amazed, I have to admit. Rarely do I encounter a blog that?s equally educative and amusing, and without
    a doubt, you've hit the nail on the head. The issue is something not enough men and
    women are speaking intelligently about. I'm very happy I came across this in my
    hunt for something concerning this.

    Also visit my blog post; 오피사이트

  146. I've been searching for hours on this topic and finally found your post. Tài xỉu, I have read your post and I am very impressed. We prefer your opinion and will visit this site frequently to refer to your opinion. When would you like to visit my site?

  147. Nice information provided by you, it really helped me to understand this topic. I have also referred this article to my friends and they also enjoyed this informative post. iZotope Insight 2 v2.1.1 Crack Mac/Win + Vst Torrent Free Download

  148. Hello it’s me, I am also visiting this site on a regular basis, this web page is truly nice and the people are actually sharing fastidious thoughts.
    unipdf full crack
    driver booster pro key

  149. As I am looking at your writing, 먹튀검증사이트 I regret being unable to do outdoor activities due to Corona 19, and I miss my old daily life. If you also miss the daily life of those days, would you please visit my site once? My site is a site where I post about photos and daily life when I was free.

  150. Hello, I'm happy to see some great articles on your site. Would you like to come to my site later? My site also has posts, comments and communities similar to yours. Please visit and take a look 토토사이트

  151. I seriously love your site.. Very nice colors & theme. Did you create this site yourself? Please reply back as I’m trying to create my very own site and would like to learn where you got this from or exactly what the theme is named. Many thanks. 먹튀커뮤니티

  152. I am very impressed with your writingsex I couldn't think of this, but it's amazing! I wrote several posts similar to this one, but please come and see!